The relationship between memory and sleep psychology essay
The letter-number test was administered to control for possible circadian confounds and to control for attention and encoding. Pre-sleep is the period of decreased perceptual awareness where brain activity is characterized by alpha waves which are more rhythmic, higher in amplitude and lower in frequency compared to beta waves.
Sleep occurs in regular intervals and is homeostatically regulated, i. Computer analysis then allows for a 3-dimensional reconstruction of the brain region or body part of interest.
SPW-R are temporally linked to both sleep spindles and slow oscillations of the neocortex. Here it is brought into a labile state where subsequent information can 'interfere' with what is currently in memory, therefore altering the memory.
Sleep is important for which memory process quizlet
This is the stage specific enhancement theory. Whereas stabilization of non-declarative memories can be seen to occur during a wakeful state, enhancement of these sensory and motor memories has most been found to occur during nocturnal sleep. The effects of six hours of total sleep deprivation TSD were assessed for the experimental group one spatial group, one non-spatial group in both tasks. Physostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor ; it is a drug that inhibits the breakdown of the inhibitory neurotransmitter Acetylcholine , thereby allowing it to remain active longer in the synapses. These findings may imply that P waves during REM sleep may help to activate critical forebrain and cortical structures dealing with memory consolidation. The non-declarative task was a mirror-tracing task. Spencer et al. Conversely, deficits in non-declarative memory occur pre or post NREM sleep deprivation. Methods Participants Twenty female and twenty male adolescents, between the ages of 10 and 14, were recruited in a public middle school. However, patients taking these medications do not report any memory impairment. The number correct was scored for the paired-associate and the letter-number tests. Two tasks were learned by all participants between pm. This does not measure a response to individual visual stimuli, but instead measures general eye movement. Essentially it is neuronal regeneration, activity that occurs whether you have learnt anything new or not.
For example, when the rat explores a maze, place cell sequences in the different arms of the maze are replayed either in a forward as during the experience itself or reverse order but compressed in time several fold. Results showed that the increased ACh negatively affected recall memory declarative taskin the sleep condition compared to participants given the placebo.
Rem sleep and memory consolidation
Some scientists have argued that the observed differences in learning are not actually due to the lack of REM sleep, but may be due to the animals not being as well rested because they were deprived a portion of their sleep. There are two types of declarative memory: episodic and semantic. Other researchers, however, have suggested that any changes in the amount of REM sleep are due to the stress of the task itself, rather than a functional relationship to learning. Alterations in mood affect our ability to acquire new information and subsequently to remember that information. This ensures the collected data for experience-dependent brain activity is purely from the novel task. This is known as retroactive interference, and is an extremely significant issue for court and eye witness testimonies. This procedure cannot record activity from individual neurons, but instead measures the overall average electrical activity in the brain. Sleep deprivation was also found to increase beliefs of being correct, especially if they were wrong. The control working memory task, letter-number, was given just prior to learning the paired-associate words and again just prior to being tested on the paired-associate words. Sleep plays a major role in the ability to learn new tasks that require motor coordination and performance.
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