According to Singer and Revenson all children will pass through these stages, which unfold over time, in order to achieve an intellectual functioning at the adult level.
The foundations of the psychoanalytic approach that affect the development are the unconscious thoughts, the biological and emotional factors, and the early experiences in life Jensen, Participant observation How do we really find out about the way of life of a group of people?
Memory and imagination are developed and children are able to mentally represent objects and events. Also educators must find a good balance between teacher-directed and child-initiated activities. The most common approaches in psychology are psychodynamic, behavior, cognitive, humanistic, and biological approaches.
Aaron Beck developed a new approach to treating depression called Cognitive therapy, which is now called Cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Instead of the simple stimulus-response links proposed by behaviourism, the mediational processes of the organism are important to understand.